Flora Hastings, a UCL student, first travelled to Potosi, Bolivia, in 2011. After meeting Julio Zambrana, and speaking to him about his activism for the miners and the conditions of Cerro Rico mountain, she wanted to find a way to promote the foundation he planned to set up. This would provide education for the children of miners. In 2015, Flora was given a UCL Travel Grant and spoke to Julio over the course of three days in Potosi. There are not many ex-miners within Potosi who have the funds or platform to found a foundation, and Nuevo Amanecer Para Los Niños (The Dawn for the Children) needs as much exposure as possible.
Julio Zambrana and the veins leading out of Cerro Rico
A cloaked Incan stands at the base of the carmine coloured mountain, talking to a hatted Spaniard. The Virgin Mary’s disembodied hands frame the conic mountain, her head floating before the summit. Gold streaks suggest the divine sanctioning of the Spanish’s colonisation of Potosi’s Cerro Rico in the 17th century, when the ‘Virgin Mountain’ was painted by an anonymous artist. The oil paint is cracked, it is four centuries old. The West’s intervention within Cerro Rico today is of a mixed variety, materialising in charities as well as in exploitative foreign mining corporations. Julio Zambrana wants to provide the children of miners the vocabulary to question and re-mould this intervention through promoting and facilitating their path to a higher education.
‘How do they know about us?’ he asks when explaining why he does not work for one of the European charities in Potosi. Julio began asking these questions at the age of 20. Now an activist for miner’s rights and running an ethical tour company, he saved his wages from mining and studied history and tourism. ‘I used to sleep 3 hours, wake up at 7 and go straight to university’. He has been a passionate advocate of education since, using himself as an example to other miners who struggle to leave the mountain.
For the Cruz family, the question of education is fraught. Like many parents within the mining quarter of Potosi, the Cruz’s desire for their children to complete their education comes from a knowledge of the growing fatalities of mining life. The mountain collapses, mining equipment for co-operatives remains antiquated, Morales does not heed the calls for a growth in public infrastructure in Potosi. Education can offer a permanent vein leading out of the mountain – Julio’s foundation will provide the dynamite.
The Cruz family’s struggle into education
From the concrete terrace of the family’s two-room home in Potosi’s mining quarter, the city center feels very far away. The Northern Bolivian Quechuan dialect overtakes Spanish at this altitude, representative of the miner’s contrasting reality to the Municipal’s streets busy with tourists thousands of meters below. The Old Town of Potosi’s center is not exposed to the dry winds blowing in from the Andes. Windburned marks on cheeks are signs of those living on the margins of Potosi’s social consciousness, 4,700 m above sea level.
Julio used to mine with Guillermo Cruz, Martina’s husband. Living within the city center, Julio has forged documents proving that Roberto Cruz, Guillermo’s son, works at his office, allowing three of his daughters to attend the prestigious Colegio Santa Rosa in the city center. Guillermo’s daughters are a rare exception. The print of a Bugs Bunny jumper is distorted, stretched over 15 year old Daisy’s heavily pregnant belly. She is the girlfriend of Chacho Cruz, Guillermo’s son.
Above the mines, there is no El Tio to guard over the women and girls that grow up in the the mining communities, often supporting their husbands through remaining at home. The drop out rate within primary and secondary education is the highest for girls; sexual abuse, teenage pregnancy and a lack of encouragement leave many woman dependent on their partners for a living. For miners of co-operatives with no state wage or pension, their early deaths through blood poisoning or fatalities leave their families stranded in the informal sector, often scraping a living through street vending.
‘Chacho is the youngest, 17 years old’, Julio exclaims before ascending the mountain to their home, ‘his brothers and father never wanted him to work in the mines’. He re-enacts the dialogue between Chacho and his father Guillermo, after Chacho’s then fifteen year old girlfriend, Daisy, became pregnant:
‘I am going to work!’
‘With you, Papa how old were you when you married our mother’
‘Fuck you – I was 17 years old – it’s different! I am your father and I don’t want you to be a miner, you have to study’
His mother Martina switches from Quechuan to Spanish as she tells us that Chacho has decided to leave high school, marry Daisy and become a miner like his two older brothers.
Education: a weapon against the lack of systematic change in Potosi
Education provides an escape from the poor working conditions of the mines, current and future. Chacho’s life-span within the mountain is as perilous as the foundations of the mines themselves. Through the re-privatisation of Cerro Rico in 1985, transnational companies such as Coeur Mining Inc. have managed to retain their mining operations within the treacherous top levels of the mountain.
Julio is angry, his curses ricochet between Quechuan, Aymara, Spanish and English. His hands point in many directions when he speaks; at the invisible figures that run Potosi, the owners of refineries, the over-worked teachers, the government officials. He jolts from the seat of his dim office, body erect, finding it hard to sit down when talking about the lack of government intervention in Potosi.
He’s angry at the postcards he sells in Sucre to raise money for miners that do not cover the cost of his bus ticket and accommodation. The laws he paid to get reconstituted to prevent tourists from exploding dynamite in the mines in 2008 and tour companies being legally obliged to pledge 15% of their profits to the miners in 2011. That basic educational items demanded by the miners in 2014 have not been granted by Morales’ government. State funded schools in Potosi’s lowest income areas remain under staffed, under attended and under stocked. But Cerro Rico’s mouth will not close in the near future and signs of public infrastructure seem to remain within the torn protest posters of miners.
Julio’s foundation – providing choice over default
Julio’s new foundation, Nuevo Amanecer Para Los Niños, or ‘New Dawn for the Children’ wants to push through these unideal circumstances. Educating the children of miners could mean they work in the mountain not by default, but by choice.
Beginning with the 250 families of his co-operative, Julio wishes to expand the aid of his foundation to the children of the 22,000 workers on the mountain. His foundation will begin by supplying basic materials that state schools in the mining quarter often fall short of, and miner’s can not afford to purchase; text books, pens, pencils.
His foundation’s long term goal is to facilitate and support the career paths of young adults that have graduated or are enrolled within high school, such as their running a hostel set up by Julio and working in his cafe next to his office. The jobs Julio could offer would provide a bridge to the intercity economy of Potosi, or of the changing landscape of Bolivia, and transform the stigma that sees higher education as a preserve of Potosi’s middle class.
A steel-grated window is swallowed into a dense cave. A glinting drill extends like a welded sword, the tearing sound of stone against metal is imagined. Gaunt cheeks hover above an advert selling beer made of Quinoa. The paint is not cracked. The muriel Julio commissioned a local artist to embellish the front of his office with works as the visual prologue to the conditions he wants to see changed. The image offers a more realistic portrait of Cerro Rico than ‘The Virgin Mountain’ – painted from the inside, like Nuevo Amanecer Para Los Niños.
To see photographs of the Cruz family click here
‘Nuevo Amanecer Para Los Niños’ has been legalised by the government, and should be ready to receive donations by the end of July, 2016. There is no website as of yet, but it will be searchable through the name of the foundation. Please visit and share to spread awareness of this worthy cause.
This article will be on www.florahastingsphotography.com permanently. You can also find a link to the foundation’s website there when it goes live.